Endometriosis is a chronic benign disease that affects 10% of women of reproductive age.
It occurs because the tissue that forms the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) is outside the uterus, generally affecting the pelvic and abdominal area (ovary, fallopian tube, peritoneum, bladder, intestines, etc.).
One theory is that part of the menstruation flows backwards through the fallopian tubes and into the abdomen instead of out of the body. However, there are many women who experience this phenomenon and do not suffer from the disease.
It is a disease of unknown cause that can cause pain and infertility but is known to respond to changes in oestrogen.
The possibility of a hereditary factor cannot be ruled out, as it can occur in several members of the same family (mother, daughters, nieces,).
It can cause implants (small plaques), nodules (large plaques) and endometriomas (ovarian cysts).
Who is affected by endometriosis?
Endometriosis is an unpredictable process. It is most commonly diagnosed in women between 25 and 40 years of age.
Symptoms of endometriosis:
Most women with endometriosis have mild or even no symptoms, but sometimes the intensity of the pain prevents them from going about their daily lives normally.
The treatment of endometriosis depends on the severity of the disease and the patient's symptoms. If she does not want to have children, oral gestagen therapy (Visanette®, Cerazet®) or combined with a levonorgestrel intrauterine device may be an option.
If the patient also requires surgery, her ovarian function may be affected, so it is recommended that fertility be preserved prior to surgery.
Endometriosis and pregnancy:
If the patient has gestational desires, the treatment she may receive is painkillers or anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgery is also indicated in cases of large endometriomas to relieve pain and improve fertility, although there is no guarantee that the patient will become pregnant after surgery. In order to increase the chances of pregnancy in patients with endometriosis, assisted reproduction techniques can be used.
Pregnancy significantly improves the disease, because during pregnancy, the ovaries remain at rest in the production of hormones and therefore, the progression of the disease is paralysed by the atrophy of the endometriosis foci.