What is hysteroscopy?
Hysteroscopy is a diagnostic test that involves the insertion of a scope, called a hysteroscope, connected to a monitor to view the inside of the uterus. The hysteroscope is inserted through the cervix to obtain a direct image of the cavity.
The study of the uterine cavity is indicated in many situations.
How is hysteroscopy performed?
We can distinguish between two types of hysteroscopy: diagnostic and surgical.
Diagnostic hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive test that is performed in the consultation room with the patient conscious. The cervix is cannulated and the hysteroscope is introduced. The patient can observe the development at all times. Once the test is over, the patient can return to her normal activities.
Surgical hysteroscopy is performed in the operating theatre with the patient under sedation. Unlike diagnostic hysteroscopy, it is indicated for patients who need treatment for certain processes affecting the uterus.
What can be diagnosed and treated by hysteroscopy?
Hysteroscopy is a fundamental technique in the diagnosis of benign pathologies such as endometrial polyps, submucosal myomas, synechiae and septa, malignant pathologies such as endometrial cancer and the treatment of various uterine pathologies: infertility, tubal recanalisation, among others.
Endometrial polyps: are small tumours of the tissue lining the uterus. They are quite common and, depending on their size and location, can be removed by hysteroscopy in the doctor's office or in an operating theatre.
Fibroids: are tumours of the walls of the uterus. They can be classified as submucosal, intramural, or subserosal depending on whether they are inside the cavity, inside the wall or outside the cavity. In many cases, these fibroids can be resected by hysteroscopy.
Morphological anomalies: The uterine septum is an excess of tissue that separates the uterus in half. Hysteroscopy can remove the septum and normalise the cavity.
Dysmorphic uterus is a common type of malformation that hinders gestation and increases the number of first trimester miscarriages. It can be easily repaired by hysteroscopy
Adhesions: Injury or infection to the endometrium can damage the lining and cause adhesions (scar tissue) to form between the inner walls of the uterus. Asherman's syndrome is the term used to describe multiple adhesions.
In reproductive medicine, it is extremely useful because, being an outpatient procedure, it is a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the study and treatment of infertile couples.